Autour du feu de nuit: contes (Harmattan Sénégal) (French Edition)

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Production ARTE. Festival Cannes Festival de Locarno. Biographie Nicolas Bouchaud Nicolas Bouchaud. Biographie Solal Bouloudnine. Biographie Robert Cantarella. Biographie Jonathan Capdevielle. Biographie Jil Caplan. Biographie Alexandre Castres Alexandre Castres. Biographie Luc Cerutti Luc Cerutti. Biographie Anne-James Chaton.

Biographie Charlotte Clamens. Biographie Michel Corvin Michel Corvin. Biographie Marc-Antoine Cyr. Biographie Eric Didry.

Biographie Marcelle Dubois. Biographie Hiba El Aflahi. Biographie Marthe Fieschi. Biographie Liliane Giraudon. Biographie Nidhal Guiga. Il est dramaturge et romancier. Depuis il collabore entre autre avec :. Biographie Eugen Jebeleanu. Depuis , il signe l'ensemble des architectures sonores du collectif Zirlib. Biographie Julien Lacroix. Biographie Leilani Lemmet Leilani Lemmet.

Biographie Sabine Macher. Biographie Moreau. Biographie David Paquet. Biographie Augustin Passard.

Cultural Representations of Massacre | SpringerLink

Association Perspective Nevski. Biographie Charles Pennequin. Biographie Eric Pessan. Biographie Groupe Petrol. She performs and directs her last play, Poings , together with a circus-maker and a composer for the international circus festival SPRING Biographie Patrick Pineau Patrick Pineau.

Pier Lorenzo Pisano nasce a Napoli nel Studia a Venezia, laureandosi in Conservazione dei beni culturali. Biographie Laurent Poitrenaux Laurent Poitrenaux. Biographie Fernando Renjifo.

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Biographie Dorcy Rugamba. He was a member of the ruling Council of Four of the Tripoli Republic, and he allied himself with the Italians after the promulgation of the Legge Fon- ddmdntdle and visited Rome to celebrate its announcement. The Ital- ians, suspicious of his motives and desires for a separate Ibadithe province, considered his endorsement of the Tripoli Republic as merely tactical.

The Italian policy of dividing the Berbers of Jabal Nefusa from their Arab countrymen resulted in a civil war in the early months of By the end of the summer of , most of the Berber popula- tion had taken refuge in coastal areas under Italian control. Blamed by Berbers for the unrest and its consequences, al-Baruni's career as a nationalist and politician came to an end. In November , he left Libya and traveled to France, Egypt, Turkey, and Mecca before set- tling down in Oman, where he was appointed finance minister.

He died in in Muscat, Oman. He was the author of an important manuscript on one of the major Ibadithe Imam titled al azhar al riyadhiyyah fl a'imma wa muluk al "ibadhiyya. Songhay term for the slaves of the Tuareg. Its Arabic name is al-dhahir al-barbari, a still- much-debated decree to innovate the system of jurisdiction in Mo- rocco, promulgated by Sultan Muhammad V on 16 March at the A- F.

It instituted for the Berber country the administration of justice according to its tribal customary law by local assemblies jama a , as opposed to shsri"d, in all matters of personal status, inheritance, and civil or commercial litigation and established the competence of French law in criminal cases.

Claiming to protect the Berber way of life, it was in fact a colonial tool to debilitate the Arab urban nationalist feelings and did not escape the severe criticism of political and academic groups in France. In Morocco, it evoked sharp reactions by the men of religion as an act that excluded Muslims from the Law of Allah such as it was laid in the Qur'an, and others saw it as a process of de- Islamization and conversion to Christianity. Violent attacks on the Dahir were launched by young urban bourgeois nationalists and in the mosques, mainly in Fes, Rabat, and Sale.

These activities found a loud echo inside and outside Morocco. In , another Dahir partly restored the role of shdri a. Otherwise, the Berber Dahir remained in force until it was repealed by the Moroccan government after the achievement of independence.


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Its historic significance, how- ever, was that it gave birth to currents of resistance against the French policies and Moroccan nationalism and has been used to justify the Arabization drive that swept much of North African policymaking after independence, doing damage to Berber culture and language. This crisis refers to the ideologi- cal split between the Kabyle leaders who called for a secular and multicultural Algeria and the dominant Arab-Islamist ideology within the Algerian mainstream nationalist movement.

Although the crisis alienated many Berbers and many were purged, it did not provoke a mass desertion of Berbers. In addition, Hocine Ait Ahmed was ex- cluded from the leadership of the Organisation speciale OS , fran- cophone intellectuals such as Mouloud Mammeri and Mouloud Feraoun were condemned for their reactionary regionalism, and key Kabyle historic leaders of the war of independence, notably Abbane A- F. These tensions resurfaced after independence and remain potent down to this day be- tween visions of a secular Algeria and an Arab-Muslim Algeria, al- though Algeria's constitution declared Algeria to be an "Arab Muslim country.

This policy refers to a series of measures taken by the French in Algeria from to and in the Protectorate of Morocco from to to implement the system of education, the organization of justice, and the reform of the jama a council tra- ditions and infrastructures. It is also known as native policy. In Algeria, it took the form of the K abyle myth, which highlighted the distinctive historical features of Berber society, and it was based on attempts to abolish Muslim institutions.

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Based on the Kabyle myth, French native policymakers played up the notion that the Kabyles were superficially Islamized and were viewed as descen- dants of the Gauls, the Romans, and Christian Berbers of the Roman era or the German Vandals. Some even called Kabylia the "Auvergne of Africa. Education in French schools was encouraged, and Quranic schools were shut down.

But despite the attempts to introduce French cultural ways among the Kabyles, the French invested considerable energy to de- fend customary laws, or qdnoun, against the sharVa Islamic law and to preserve the jama 'a, or village councils. In , the Kabyles were given separate status in the delegations financieres to remove contact between them and Arabs. However, with the development of better communications, this policy, ironically and much to the cha- grin of its originators and defenders, exposed Kabylia to intensive streams of Arabization.

Similarly in Morocco, the French practiced a policy of divide and rule where Berbers were concerned.

Cultural Representations of Massacre

In opposition to Arab identity, the policy was framed within the racist notion of a Berber race with different racial and cultural attributes, such as democracy, light and superficial practices of Islam, lack of fanaticism, superior physical traits, entrepreneurship, bravery, and honesty. The major goal was to preserve Berber customs and religious practices in the hope of nur- turing the future acculturation and education of Berbers as colonial A- F. In the initial stages, Catholic missionaries especially Cardinal Lavigerie were encour- aged to preach the gospel in the Berber areas and sought to foster French culture and language through the revitalization of Berber Christianity.

The core of the policy stressed separate educational and judicial systems for Berbers. Franco-Berber schools were established in the M iddle Atlas: six schools were built in , growing to 20 schools with an enrollment of by In , an advanced school called College d'Azrou today Lycee Tariq Ibn Ziyad was created that soon, much to the dismay of the supporters of the Berber Policy, provided an ideal environment where assimilated Berbers learned Arabic and adopted pan-Arab and Islamic attitudes and sentiments.

In , legal mechanisms were put in place to define the legal functions of the jama a as well as those of appointed arbitrators and to make the Berber judicial system different from the standards legal norms pre- vailing in the rest of Morocco. By , there were 72 judicial jdlVd a dispensing legal services to about a third of all Muslim Mo- roccans.

This new system caused problems for Arabs living in Berber areas, and it angered the sultan, who maintained that all areas should be subject to the sharVa. Its most alarming article number 6 of 8 withdrew legal jurisdiction over crimes committed in Berber areas from the High Sharifian Tribunal and thus placed them outside the purview of the shari a. This attempt led to protests in North Africa and the Middle East and was inter- preted as a trick to cut off the Berbers from their Muslim brothers and sisters and convert them to Christianity.

The protests were orches- trated by urban nationalists mostly Arabs , but the overall impact of the Dahir was to provide a context for the cultivation of a nationalist movement and, ironically, to force the French to abolish their Berber Dahir. With in- dependence, schools were reorganized, and the so-called Berber Dahir was abolished. In April , the region of Kabylia was the setting of resistance to the exclusionary and marginalization poli- cies of the government of Algeria. Following the provocative act of cancellation by the governor of the Wilaya of Tizi UZOU of a lecture on Berber poetry that was to be delivered at the University of Tizi Ouzou on 10 March by M Ollloud M ammeri, students protested and occupied the university.

Students clashed with security forces and the military for two weeks, leading to mass demonstrations throughout the region.


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  7. The confrontation left 36 protestors dead and hundreds wounded. These events, known as the Tdfsut and popularly known as the "Berber Spring" or Printemps Berbere, had several political implica- tions for the Berber movement inside and outside Algeria. First, it ushered in Berberism as a political force in postindependence Alge- ria. The Mouvement Culturel Berbere MCB gained substantial im- petus against state authorities and also became a secular counterbal- ance to Islamic politics.