High-Leverage Leadership: Improving Outcomes in Educational Settings (Leading School Transformation)

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Classroom design and management. In developmentally-grounded schools, classroom management is approached as something that is done with students and not to them.

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Classroom management. Bransford , Eds. San Francisco , CA: Wiley. Students may help develop the classroom rules and norms—often in a classroom constitution that is posted—and take on specific tasks, ranging from materials manager or librarian to leading activities in the classroom to organizing special events, which allow them to be responsible and contributing members of the community. An effective classroom learning community develops respectful relationships between teachers and students, and also among the students themselves, as students are taught to develop social competence.

Teachers take time to socialize students to their roles as community members Brophy, Brophy, J. Classroom management as socializing students into clearly articulated roles. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33 1 , 1 — 4. Teachers and students together create common norms for how to behave in various situations, so that students can learn how to interact respectfully, take turns, voice their needs and thoughts appropriately, and solve problems that occur. Review of Educational Research, 86 3 , — One well-researched example of such a developmentally-grounded approach is Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline , which builds shared responsibility for learning and classroom organization between teachers and students.

The teacher creates a consistent learning environment by working with students in establishing a cooperative plan for classroom rules, procedures, use of time, and academic learning that governs the classroom. As they are taught citizenship skills and given multiple chances for leadership, students gain the experiences necessary to become self-disciplined. Classroom management: A pathway to student achievement: A study of 14 innercity elementary schools. Elementary School Journal, 1 , 63 — Beyond behaviorism: Changing the classroom management paradigm.

Boston, MA : Allyn and Bacon. The development of a classroom learning community helps teachers to manage the classroom, both because children feel more connected and because peers offer greater assistance and collaboration, gaining in competence and agency. Developing community practices that strengthen relationships is critical. They may also include regular student-teacher conferences. Identity Safe Environments. As we have noted, healthy development and learning require both physical and psychological safety. One aspect of this safety is protection from physical bullying or trauma, accomplished by explicitly teaching students how to interact with each other and addressing challenges immediately.

Equally important is that teachers create environments where students are affirmed and equitably supported. Teachers play a key role in shaping student learning through their own beliefs and the feedback they provide to their students.

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Their perceptions of students shape expectations that often predict student achievement apart from prior ability Dweck Dweck, C. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. London, UK : Psychology Press. Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy.

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American Educational Research Journal, 32 3 , — San Francisco : Wiley Publishers. Unfortunately, there is evidence that many teachers attribute inaccurate characterizations of academic ability and behavior to students based on race and ethnicity Irvine, Irvine, J. Educating teachers for diversity: Seeing with a cultural eye. NY : Teachers College Press. Classroom goal structure and student disruptive behaviour.

Are teachers' expectations different for racial minority than for European American students? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99 2 , — Two strikes: Race and the disciplining of young students. Psychological Science, 26 5 , — Stigma, social identity threat, and health. Student perceptions of disciplinary conflict in ethnically diverse classrooms.

Teachers need to understand how their attitudes toward their students can shape their treatment of students and what students ultimately learn. Language, culture, and teaching: Critical perspectives for a new century. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum. A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

American Psychologist, 52 6 , — Whistling Vivaldi: How stereotypes affect us and what we can do.

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New York : W. Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 3 , — Stereotype threat can be mitigated by how teachers frame the purpose of assignments and assessments—as diagnosing current skills that can be improved, rather than measuring ability Aronson, Aronson, J. Stereotype threat: Contending and coping with unnerving expectations. Aronson Ed. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25 10 , — When the threat is lifted, through affirmations that the student is seen as competent and valued, many dozens of studies have shown that performance on tests, grades, and other academic measures improves significantly in ways that are frequently maintained over time Steele, Steele, C.

The importance of minority teachers: Student perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Educational Researcher, 45 7 , — Representation in the classroom: The effect of own-race teachers on student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 45 , 44 — The effects of teacher match on students' academic perceptions and attitudes.

Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40 1 , 59 — All teachers can convey affirming attitudes by exposing students to an intellectually demanding curriculum and supporting them in mastering it, conveying their confidence that students can learn; teaching students strategies they can use to monitor and manage their own learning; encouraging children to excel; and building on the individual and cultural resources they bring to the school, ranging from social knowledge of the community and its history to mathematically rich pasttimes such as chess and sports to expressive understanding of language use and popular culture.

Teaching diverse learners. Bell Eds.

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Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. In addition to the cultivating the classroom features already described, teachers who create identity safe settings cultivate diversity as a resource for teaching through regular use of materials, ideas, and teaching activities that draw on referents to a wide range of cultures and exhibit high expectations for all students.

Creating an identity safe classroom by engaging in culturally responsive pedagogy relies on teachers understanding the views and experiences children bring to school, including, for example, how students communicate in their communities Lee, Lee, C. Integrating research on how people learn and learning across settings as a window of opportunity to address inequality in educational processes and outcomes.

Review of Research in Education, 41 1 , 88 — Geneva Gay Gay, G. Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 2 , — Learning as a cultural process: achieving equity through diversity. Sawyer Ed. New York : Cambridge University Press. Cultural ways of learning: Individual traits or repertoires of practice. Educational Researcher, 32 5 , 19 — This recognition can support stronger student learning. For teachers reporting the highest level of each dimension, reading gains were significantly higher at the end of the year.

Teachers College Record, 5 , EJ Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. These practices can foster trust and alignment among students, parents, and staff, as described in the following section. Recent research shows that relational trust among teachers, parents, and school leaders is a key resource for schools that predicts the likelihood of gains in achievement and other student outcomes where instructional expertise is also present. Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement.

New York : Russell Sage Foundation. Be the change: Reinventing school for student success. New York : Teachers College Press. Building strong relationships between the school and the family increases academic outcomes for students. In a series of meta-analyses examining the impact of parent involvement, Jeynes Jeynes, W. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students.

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Urban Education, 47 4 , — A meta-analysis: The relationship between parental involvement and Latino student outcomes. Education and Urban Society, 49 1 , 4 — A meta-analysis of 51 studies found an effect size of. Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. They found lasting effects on achievement when students feel supported both at home and in school.

Students with involved parents have more self-confidence, feel school is more important, earn higher grades and attend college. In a longitudinal study conducted in 71 Title I elementary schools, higher achievement was stimulated by teacher outreach to parents through face-to-face meetings, sending materials home, and phone calls home on a routine basis. Educational risk and resilience in African-American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Development, 65 2 Spec No , — Lessons learned and opportunities ignored since Brown v. Board of education: Youth development and the myth of a color-blind society.

Educational Researcher, 37 5 , — In sum, schools can support student development by creating structures that enable teachers to know their students well and develop strong relationships, ranging from smaller classes and school units to advisory systems, looping, teaching teams, and longer grade spans.