The House of Death (Telamon Triology, Book 1): An action-packed mystery from Ancient Greece

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But exact dates serve to fix in the mind the times when the character of the literature was changing. The ancient literature is the only one of the three divisions with which we have to do here. This we may again divide into three periods, each of which runs into the next with no sharp dividing line, though the main characPeriods of teristics of each are clear and distinct: 1.

The ancient early period, from about the tenth century to Greek litera- the end of the sixth century B. The ti4re. Attic period, the fifth and fourth centuries B. The period of literary decadence, from the beginning of the third century B. The last period is further subdivided into Alexandrian literature, lasting from about B.

Each of these periods is distinguished not only by chronological sequence, but by the character of its productions and the dialect or dialects in which those productions Literary are composed. So the early period sees the character of growth and development of epic poetry, at first the periods, in the Jolic dialect, later in Ionic, and of lyric poetry, chiefly in the Doric and AEolic dialects.

Prose writing, in Ionic Greek, also begins in this period. The Attic period is the time when the great seat of literary activity was Athens. In this period dramatic poetry, both tragic and comic, reaches its height, and prose literature is developed in history, philosophy, and oratory.

After this brilliant period the Greeks almost cease to produce works of original creative genius, and literature becomes for the most part either learned or imitative. The prose writers collect the doctrines of their predecessors, write comments on earlier works or compose learned scientific treatises, while the poets copy more or less laboriously the style and forms of expression of the great masters of earlier days.

The lEolic dialect, spoken in Thessaly, in Bceotia, on the island of Lesbos, and in the ]Eolic cities of Asia Minor, retained some of the early forms of the Greek language longer than did the other dialects. It never attained The dialtshigh development as a literary tongue except in lyric poetry.

The Doric dialect, spoken in Doris, most of the Peloponnesus, nearly all the Sicilian colonies, and many cities in Asia Minor and elsewhere, was more primitive than the others in its sounds, just as the zEolic was in its forms. A peculiarity of Doric Greek was its liking for the broad a sound. Ionic Greek, on the other hand, the dialect of the Ionic colonies of Asia Minor, most of the islands of the ZEgean Sea, and various cities in other regions, preferred the close e to the a sound. This dialect was more elegant than either LEolic or Doric.

It was the dialect of the developed epic poetry, of elegiac verse, and of the earliest prose. Attic Greek is a variety of the Ionic dialect with some of the characteristics of the Doric. In its highest development, in the fifth and fourth centuries B. The influence of Attic literature was so great that the Attic dialect, with some modifications, spread all over the Greek world, and, under the name of " the Common Dialect," became the literary language of the last period of ancient Greek literature.

The Iliad and Odyssey make us acquainted with Imperfect preservation the early epic poetry at its best, and the loss of of Greek lit- the great number of epics is therefore less to erature. The earliest attempts to write prose have also been lost. The works of the great writers of the Attic period are better preserved than are the earlier writings, but the second- and third-class writers are hardly known to us at all, and of the works of the greatest poets of the fifth century only a small part though perhaps the best part has been handed down through the lapse of centuries.

Many writings of the period of literary decadence have been preserved, but a much greater number has been lost. The survival of the works of the earlier periods is due chiefly to the Alexandrian and later scholars, who made a selection of the masterpieces of Greek literature, choosing them from the great number of works existing in their day. It results from the imperfect preservation of Greek literature that our knowledge of its history must be somewhat fragmeiitary.

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Kt Some writers are known to us by their Sources of works, about whose lives we have no trustworour informa- thy information, while facts are recorded about tion. In general, our knowledge comes from the works of the authors themselves, from references to them in the works of their contemporaries, from accounts of their lives and works written in later times, and from notes, called scholia, written in ancient editions of their works.

Most SURPRISING Facts About The Ancient Greeks!

What information we can glean in this way is valuable, for we obtain it at first hand and can be sure that it has not been falsified in any way, but it is very fragmentary. On the other hand, the existing biographies of Greek authors are all of late date. Their writers must have derived their information Biographies. Whether such a biography is trustworthy or not depends upon the source from which its author derives his information and upon his own conscientiousness in recording the information he has derived. In most cases it is possible to find out by careful study both the source from which a biography is derived and the character of its writer.

The existing biographies are by no means of equal value, some being in the main trustworthy records, while others are mere myths. So, too, the scholia are of very unequal value. Some of them seem to be mere guesses or careless remarks of late Soliolia. It is only by combining the facts learned from these various sources and by studying them in connection with the extant works of the ancient authors that we are able to compose a history of Greek literature, and it is evident that there must be some gaps in our knowledge and some details in regard to which the opinions of scholars still differ.

Our information is, however, amply sufficient to enable us to trace in the main the development of Greek literature in historical times, and to form a correct judgment of the value and character of the different authors and their works. We are chiefly concerned with the extant works and their authors, though the works which have been partly or even entirely lost can not be altogether neglected.

The Iliad by Homer

But it is evident that the lliad and Iliad and Odyssey-long and elaborate works-are not Odyssey not the beginnings of literature. Of their predethe begin- cessors we know little, but that little is impornings of tant because it helps to explain the existence literature. Every primitive people has some sort of music to which songs are sung. Such songs, rude and irregular though they may be, are the beginnings of lyric poetry, Earliest and from them also epic poetry is developed by the growth of the narrative element.

When the Greek tribes entered Greece they must have brought with them songs of various kinds, though we can not tell what the stage of their development was in those early times. But the traditions that lived on and are imperfectly recorded in later times tell us of two principal forms of early poetry, one of which developed into lyric poetry at a later time, while the other was the parent of the epic.

To the first class belong the threnos, or lament for the dead, with its constant wailing refrain of " ai, ai "; the marriage song, invoking Hymenreus and calling down blessings on the wedded pair; the glad pman of victory, sung after the battle, at the feast, or on the march, and doubtless some other popular songs, such as those sung at the festivals of the springtime and the vintage.

The second class consisted of more formal and sedate songs, of hymns to the gods, and chants of battle, adventure, and prowess. The birthplace of the Muses, daughters of Zeus, teachers of song to mortals, was, according to the popular tradition, in Pieria, on the northern slopes of Mount Tuses. From this region a colony of Pierians moved south and settled about Mount Helicon, bringing the worship of the Muses with them.

The House of Death (Telamon Triology, Book 1): An action-packed mystery from Ancient Greece

This tradition seems to hide a grain of truth. But the Greeks themselves knew little or nothing of the poets of those early days, and the names they have handed down to us are not to be regarded as historical, but only as mythical personifications of poetry and song. The name of Linus is poets. So Orpheus, sometimes called the brother of Linus, is an entirely mythical character, though a considerable body of not very early poetry was falsely ascribed to him. Musaus, about whom contradictory stories were told, but who was regarded as the son or tie pupil of Orpheus, was connected with the sacred rites at Eleusis, in Attica, and his son or father Eumolpus was regarded as the ancestor of the Attic family of the Eumnolpidle.

But Museus himself is as mythical as Orph1eus. Another utterly vague and probably mythical poet is l'Pmphus, who was supposed to have introduced or fixed tie reliious tradition in Attica and the neighboring part of Bueotia. IBut it- was not alone from the north that music and poetry entered Greece. They also claimed that Olen was the inventor of the epic hexameter verse, a distinction which the Delphians claimed for the first Pytllia at Delphi, Phemono;. The hexameter verse,. The fact, however, that the Delphians claimed that it was invented by their priestess shows that there was an early school of poetry ThDelphio at Delphi.

Here, according to the story, the Cretan Chrysothemis contended for the prize in song, and after him Philammon of Thrace, and after him his son Thamyris. These are all mythical personages, but the story of their contests at Delphi is an indication that the northern and eastern schools of song met and joined forces on the slopes of Parnassus.

The names assigned to the earliest singers of hymns in Greece are mythical, and all their songs are lost; but it is evident that they had great influence upon the poetry of the first great epoch of Greek literature, the time when the Iliad and the Odyssey were composed, as well as upon the slightly later poems ascribed to Hesiod and his school. There were other earlier poems, not only the hymns of which we have spoken, but epic poems Greatness of also; but these have disappeared, leaving the the Iliad and Iliad and the Odyssey alone in their grandeur.

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For more than two thousand years these two have stood as the highest and most perfect examples of epic poetry. It is only by minute investigation and ingenious combination of evidence that scholars have been able to acquire some real knowledge of the date and manner of composition of these immortal works, but the works themselves have served as a constant source of inspiration to countless generations of scholars, poets, and artists.

The Iliad and the Odyssey have for their subjects different parts of the story of the Trojan War. This was a tale of the ancient heroes in whom the Greeks believed as firmly as they believed in their gods. Indeed, why should they not? For the heroes were sons or descendants of gods, and at the same time ancestors of the noblest Greek families. Many stories were told of them. Some of these probably had real historical founda But whatever the origin of these stories, the Greeks accepted them for many centuries as the truth.

Of all these tales, the story of the Trojan War is of the greatest interest to us, because it furnishes the subjectmatter of the Iliad and the Odyssey. The story is made up of various elements, and some parts of it are known to us only from the works of late writers. Briefly told, it is as follows: Zeus was in love with the beautiful sea-goddess Thetis and wished to marry her, but he was told that the son of Thetis was fated to be mightier than his father, and thereupon he decided that Thetis must marry a mortal man.

Peleus, a chieftain of Phthiotis, a part of what was afterThe wedding ward Thessaly, was chosen as her husband. She was angry at being left out, and spitefully threw among the assembled goddesses a golden apple with the inscription "For the fairest. Each of the goddesses offered Paris a reward if he would decide that she was the fairest and should have the golden The judg- apple. Aphrodite promised him the most beaument of tiful woman in the world for his wife, and he Paris. Now the most beautiful of women was Helen, daughter of Tyndareiis and wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta.

History of Greece - Vol. 10/12, by George Grote — A Project Gutenberg eBook

With the help of Aphrodite, Paris carried Helen away to Troy. But before ler marriage with Menelaus, Helen had had many suitors, and it. So when Paris had carried Helen away, Tyndarcils and Menelaus called upon the Greek chiefs to keep their promise. A great host came together and sailed against Troy under the command of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, brother of Menelaus. In this host were The Greek many famous heroes, the wise Nestor, from heroes.

For nine long years these warriors endured the toils of war about the walls of Troy, but they were unable to take the city, in spite of the fact that the Trojans were kept most of the time penned up within their walls. The forces on the two sides were nearly equal, but there was one warrior among the Greeks whom even Hector, the bravest and mightiest of the Trojans, could not meet on equal terms in the field. This hero was Achilles. His courage and skill in fighting kept the Trojans from attacking the camp of the Greeks and made the Greeks hope that the city would soon fall into their hands.

So matters stood until the tenth year of the war.